Lowndes, et al., Nature Protocols, June 29, 2017

This protocol describes a detailed protocol based on covalent binding of nucleophilic groups on Wnt proteins to activated carboxylic acid or glutaraldehyde groups functionalized on synthetic surfaces. This method can be used to covalently immobilize Wnt3a proteins on microbeads or a glass surface, which can help in studies of mucosal barriers or modified to assist in organoid generation. This method can also be incorporated into tissue engineering platforms in which depletion of the stem cell pool restricts the complexity and maturity of the tissue developed.

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