Willart, MA, P. Poulliot, BN Lambrecht, and M. Kool. “PAMPs and DAMPs in Allergy Exacerbation Models.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2013. Web. 30 July 2014.

Sensitization of mice to real-life allergens or harmless antigen with the use of adjuvants will lead to the induction of DAMPs in the immune system. We have shown that the Th2-inducing adjuvant aluminum hydroxide or exposure of the airways to house dust mite leads to the release of DAMPs: uric acid, ATP, and IL-1. Exposure to DAMPs or PAMPs present in allergens or added to harmless allergens, such as the experimental allergen ovalbumin, induces several immune responses, including cellular influx and activation. Cellular influx can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Likewise, cellular activation can be assessed by measuring increased expression and release of chemokines and cytokines. These inflammatory mediators can be analyzed by ELISA or confocal microscopy. Here, we describe the protocols for these assessments and a protocol that takes advantage of bone marrow chimeric mice to further elucidate mechanism.

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